Astrocytoma is a medical condition that develops from astrocytes, a star-shaped brain cells. The disease has been categorized into four different groups based on reproduction rate of the cell, and its capability to spread in nearby tissues. Grades I and Grades II astrocytomas are non-malignant, and can be referred to as low grade. However, Grades III and Grades IV are malignant, and has the capacity to spread quickly. With time, lower grade astrocytoma can change to high grade astrocytoma. Grade III astrocytomas are also called as anaplastic astrocytomas. Anaplastic Astrocytoma is a rare medical condition, and can be divided into two categories – IDH-mutant, IDH-wildtype. IDH1 is a gene that encodes for a metabolic enzyme called isocitrate dehydrogenase 1.
According to American Brain Tumor Association, about 25,000 new cases of primary malignant brain tumors were diagnosed in the U.S. in 2016. Moreover, about 50% of gliomas are glioblastomas. Occurrence of anaplastic astrocytomas is more common in adults compared to children, according to American Brain Tumor Association (ABTA). The ABTA estimates that anaplastic astrocytomas in people aged 30-35 years accounted for 17% of primary malignant brain tumors, however, only 9% of tumor in children are glioblastomas.
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Anaplastic Astrocytoma Treatment Market: Driver
Increasing number of drug candidate in pipeline, which may receive approval over the forecast period is expected to drive growth of the global anaplastic astrocytoma treatment market. Currently, there is only a drug, temozolomide (Temodar), approved by U.S. FDA for Anaplastic Astrocytoma. Temodar is an alkylating agent that has been approved for both conditions, newly diagnosed patients as well as refractory anaplastic astrocytoma patients, who have witnessed disease progression in spite of taking drug containing nitrosourea and procarbazine. However, there are multiple products in pipeline for the treatment of anaplastic astrocytoma. For instance, DCC-2618, a drug candidate developed by Deciphera Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is currently in Phase 1 clinical trials. The drug has also been granted orphan drug designation for the treatment of anaplastic astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in September 2017. Moreover, an experimental drug PAC-1 was cleared for the clinical trial of patients with anaplastic astrocytoma in November 2017. The drug candidate is being developed by Vanquish Oncology, Inc. The trial will determine if the drug candidate is safe to use in combination with a standard chemotherapy drug, temozolomide.
Anaplastic Astrocytoma Treatment Market: Restraint
Currently, there are three main forms of treatment for anaplastic astrocytoma – surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Out of these three, surgery is the first line of treatment in most of the cases. Only if, whole tumor cannot be safely excised or removed, patients are advised to go for other method of treatment. This treatment pattern i.e. drugs as second or third line of treatment has hampered the sales of pharmaceutical drugs such as Temodar, which in turn has restrained growth of anaplastic astrocytoma treatment market.
Anaplastic Astrocytoma Treatment Market: Regional Analysis
North America is expected to account for major share in global anaplastic astrocytoma treatment market, owing to higher awareness about rare diseases such as anaplastic astrocytoma, and also, presence of leading clinical-stage companies in the region. For instance, a study sponsored by Burzynski Research Institute, headquartered at Texas, U.S., is testing antineoplaston therapy (atengenal + astugenal) in clinical trials. The study is currently in phase 2 clinical trials. Furthermore, a clinical trial sponsored by Northwell Health in collaboration with Genentech, Inc. (subsidiary of Roche AG) is testing safety and efficacy of Erlotinib for anaplastic astrocytoma. The study is currently in Phase 1/2. Approval of these pipeline products over the forecast period would boost growth of North America anaplastic astrocytoma treatment market.
Moreover, the approval of generics for temozolomide will play a vital role in increasing adoption of drug, especially in emerging economies in regions such as Asia Pacific and Latin America. In 2016, FDA approved the Amerigen Pharmaceuticals Limited’s generic version of Temodar. The company’s main facility is in Jiangsu Province, China. Leading global generic players such as Mylan N.V. has also received approval for generic version of Temodar in July 2016. The entry of generic drugs is expected to support growth of the anaplastic astrocytoma treatment market.
Anaplastic Astrocytoma Treatment Market: Key Players
Key players operating in anaplastic astrocytoma treatment market includes Merck & Co., Inc., Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Mylan N.V., Pfizer, Inc., and Novartis AG. Roche AG has also product for anaplastic astrocytoma in pipeline, currently. Moreover, medium-sized generic manufacturers such as Perrigo Company Plc and Cipla Ltd. also have presence in the market.